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The Anti-Christ by Nietzsche

Are Souls Real? Are Souls Real? by Jerome W. Elbert

Do you believe your soul will survive after you die? Do you even believe you HAVE a soul? Many people devote their lives to caring for their souls and preparing for an afterlife. Others doubt souls exist. For questioners, the local experts on souls are usually ministers, priests, or rabbis. Not surprisingly, spiritual counselors almost always believe in various spirits, including some kind of supernatural soul. But given what we now know about the brain, psychology, and body chemistry, the skeptic may well ask what meaning or relevance this medieval term can possibly have today.

Physicist Jerome W. Elbert takes up this intriguing issue in his informative yet accessible study. He points out that many contemporary dilemmas have much to do with whether or not we posit the existence of a soul -- for example, the question of free will and the debate over abortion. Reviewing the ancient origins of the soul concept, Elbert looks at Christian beliefs and pagan parallels, and then considers how the advance of science has changed our fundamental understanding of the brain and consciousness. He shows how these new scientific insights inevitably affect our traditional ideas about the soul.

For anyone who is at all uncertain, ARE SOULS REAL? offers an alternative to the views of a spiritual advisor. Various experts, from biblical scholars to neuroscientists, have gathered information that allows soul beliefs to be judged more skeptically. This book brings these conclusions together, offering a new perspective on whether supernatural souls really exist.

Insightful and absorbing, ARE SOULS REAL? is popular science writing at its best.

From The author, Jerome W. Elbert , April 18, 2000:  
This book gives a skeptical discussion of soul-beliefs.  Do you believe your soul will survive after you die? Do you even believe you have a soul? Many people devote their lives to caring for their souls, while others doubt souls exist. Given the explosion in scientific knowledge about the brain, mind, and body chemistry, anyone who is even slightly skeptical may wonder whether the ancient concept of the soul holds any meaning in the modern world.

In Are Souls Real?, I review the ancient origins of the soul concept, look at Christian beliefs and pagan parallels, and consider how scientific progress has changed our understanding of the brain and consciousness. As a physicist with a life-long interest in religious and philosophical questions, I have developed my own insights and have gathered information from various experts, ranging from biblical scholars to neuroscientists and philosophers. The results allow me to make a thorough, but readable, evaluation of soul-beliefs. I come to a strong conclusion that a wide range of readers will find convincing.

That supernatural souls may not exist can have an enormous impact on our thinking about our basic nature and how we should live our lives. Does a soul impart consciousness to our bodies, or is consciousness a natural result of the functioning of our brains? I present an easily understood picture of how consciousness arises as a result of natural processes in biological organisms. I discuss how the possible non-existence of supernatural souls affects our ideas about practical issues such as free will, responsibility, crime and punishment, and abortion.

As the first book devoted entirely to a skeptical discussion of the soul's existence, Are Souls Real? is bound to be somewhat controversial. It does not treat soul-beliefs as primarily a matter of faith and tradition, but as questionable statements about reality. I expect a wide range of reactions. Although some may find the book disturbing since it challenges certain cherished beliefs, I hope that most will find that it gives a persuasive and enlightening description of what we are and what we are not.

About the Author
Jerome W. Elbert, Ph.D., is an independent researcher and writer. For many years he worked as a research professor of physics at the University of Utah. He is a member of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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This site features scholarly and popular resources concerning intelligent design and philosophical theism. 

Site Includes:

bulletIntelligent Design
bulletDarwinism & Evolution
bulletBook Reviews
bulletSpecial Interest
bulletRelated Links


Teaching Minds,
Changing Hearts

This site is designed to encourage those around the world from a biblically informed Christian world and life view. Information presented here is intended to provoke thoughtful reflection upon biblical principles and practice. 

Site includes:

bulletBiblical & Philosophical Studies
bulletStudent Discipleship
bulletRecommended Internet Resources

Apologetics Resources

Also check out the following list of links: 


bulletCenter for Reformed Theology and Apologetics
bulletChristian Apologetics Thought Study (CATS)
bulletChristian Research Institute
bulletEvangelical Philosophical Society
bulletLeadership University
bulletOn Christianity
bulletUnravelling Wittgensteins Net - A Christian Thinktank
bulletVan Til list archives
bulletWilliam Lane Craig's Virtual Office


bulletThe Arguments from Evil and Nonbelief (1996) by Theodore M. Drange
bulletBy This Time He Stinketh: The Attempts of William Lane Craig to Exhume Jesus (1997) by Robert M. Price
bulletDonald Morgan
bulletThe Historicity of Jesus' Resurrection: The Debate between Christian and Skeptics
bulletThe Jury Is In: The Ruling on McDowell's "Evidence"
bulletProblems with Heaven (1997) by Michael Martin
bulletThe Skeptical Review
bulletWalk Away



Here is a site of comparative studies of Atheism, Agnosticism and Theism.  Site Includes:

An Introduction

bulletWho are these infidels?!


bulletAtheism I Web


bulletThe Agnostic Church

Non-theism  Critiques of Atheism, Agnosticism & Non-theism

bulletAnswering an Atheist


Skeptical Theism

Teleological (Design) Arguments

bulletThe Anthropic Coincidences, Evil and the Disconfirmation of Theism Quentin Smith
bulletIs the Weak Anthropic Principle Compatible with Divine Design? Kyle Kelly
bulletIntelligent Design: Humans, Cockroaches, and the Laws of Physics Victor Stenger
bulletCosmythology: Is the Universe Fine-Tuned to Produce Us? Victor Stenger
bulletThe Fine-Tuning Argument Theodore Drange
bulletThe Design Argument - R.I.P. Peter Kirby
bulletOn Universes and Firing Squads Michael J. Hurben
bulletArguments to Design Antony Flew

Moral Arguments

bulletAgainst the Moral Argument Mark Vuletic
bulletThe Moral Foundations of Atheism and Christianity Mark Vuletic
bulletDoes the Free-Will Defense Constitute a Sound Theodicy? Niclas Berggren
bulletAtheism, Christian Theism, and Rape Michael Martin
bulletMorality Requires God...Or Does It? Theodore Schick, Jr.
bulletIn Defense of Moral Subjectivism Keith Augustine
bulletIs God Necessary for Morality?

Cosmological Arguments

bulletDid God Cause the Universe in the Kalam Cosmological Argument? James Still
bulletThe Kalam Cosmological Argumen: A Rebuttal Andrew Lias
bulletIs God in Time Prior to Creation? Wes Morriston
bulletCausation and the Logical Impossibility of a Divine Cause Quentin Smith
bulletBig Bang Cosmology and Atheism: Why the Big Bang is No Help to Theists Quentin Smith
bulletCan Everything Come to Be Without a Cause? Quentin Smith
bulletTwo Ways of Proving Atheism Quentin Smith
bulletThe Uncaused Beginning of the Universe Quentin Smith
bulletCreation ex nihilo--Without God Mark Vuletic

Ontological Arguments

bulletOntological Arguments Graham Oppy

Miracle Arguments

bulletThe Conception of the Miraculous and Christian Apologetics Keith Parsons
bulletThe Argument from the Bible Theodore Drange
bulletCraig's Holy Spirit Epistemology Michael Martin

Transcendental Arguments

bulletDoes Induction Presume the Existence of the Christian God? Michael Martin
bulletThe Transcendental Argument for the Nonexistence of God (TANG) Michael Martin
bulletButler's Defense of TAG and Critique of TANG Michael Martin
bulletTANG (The Martin-Frame Debate)
bulletIs Non-Christian Thought Justifiable? (The Jones-Parsons-Martin Debate)

Theistic Arguments in General

bulletThe Gap in Theistic Arguments Michael Martin
bulletHow to Defend Atheism George Smith
bulletGentle Godlessness: A Compassionate Introduction to Atheism Paul O'Brien
bulletAtheism, Agnosticism, Noncognitivism Theodore Drange
bulletIs the Proof of the Non-Existence of a God Even Possible? Jeffery Jay Lowder
bulletLogic and Fallacies The Atheism Web
bulletDoes God Exist? Sally Morem

Websites Promoting Christianity (But helping to promote Atheism and Humanism by their example)

bulletAmerica Decieved
bulletAmerican Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
bulletAryan Nations
bulletBible Sex Facts
bulletA Call for Reformation and Revival
bulletChalcedon Foundation
bulletDefining Faggots
bulletThe Evil of Autonomy
bulletGirlie-Men in the pulpit
bulletGlances into the Sewers of False Christianity
bulletGod Hates Fags
bulletInterview with Rev. Fred Phelps
bulletGod hates me, yes He does
bulletGod's Enemies
bulletInvisible Empire: Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
bulletKu Klux Klan
bulletThe Kuyper Foundation
bulletThe Monsterous Regiment of Women
bulletPastor advocates executing children
bulletPluralism: Killer of Christian Culture
bulletReconstructionist Creed
bulletShould Women be Allowed to Teach?
bulletThe Ten Commandments
bulletWar of the Testaments


Big Bang Cosmology

Atheism, Theism and Big Bang Cosmology (1991) By Quentin Smith. This article was originally published in  Australasian Journal of Philosophy in March 1991 (Volume 69, No. 1, pp. 48-66).


The idea that the big bang theory allows us to infer that the universe began to exist about 15 billion years ago has attracted the attention of many theists. This theory seemed to confirm or at least lend support to the theological doctrine of creation ex nihilo. Indeed, the suggestion of a divine creation seemed so compelling that the notion that 'God created the big bang' has taken a hold on popular consciousness and become a staple in the theistic component of 'educated common sense'. By contrast, the response of atheists and agnostics to this development has been comparatively lame. Whereas the theistic interpretation of the big bang has received both popular endorsement and serious philosophical defence (most notably by William Lane Craig and John Leslie1), the nontheistic interpretation remains largely undeveloped and unpromulgated. The task of this article is to fill this lacuna and develop a nontheistic interpretation of the big bang. I shall argue that the nontheistic interpretation is not merely an alternative candidate to the theistic interpretation, but is better justified than the theistic interpretation. In fact, I will argue for the strong claim that big bang cosmology is actually inconsistent with theism.


Theologicial Research Exchange Network

The Theologicial Research Exchange Network (TREN) is a library of over 7,800 theological thesis/dissertation titles representing research from as many as 70 different institutions.

Site includes links to:

bulletEvangelical Theological Society (1,129 papers)
bulletAmerican Society of Church History (150 papers)
bulletSociety for Pentecostal Studies (75 papers)
bulletNorth American Patristic Society (20 papers)
bulletAmerican Catholic Historical Association (14 papers)

World Union of Deists

An extensive website on Deism, with interesting articles, a Newsletter, bookshop, and more.

Site includes:

bulletDeism vs. Atheism & Christianity 
bulletThe Natural Religion, Deism Defined & FAQ's 
bulletThought provoking essays by Thomas Paine 
bulletTax Religions! 
bulletStump the Bible Thumpers 
bulletThink! (bi-monthly Newsletter)

Xavier Zubiri Foundation

The principal web site dedicated to the philosophy of Spanish philosopher Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983). Includes many primary and secondary texts, extensive bibliographic information, summaries of Zubiri's philosophy, information about purchasing Zubiri-related materials, links to other Zubiri-related sites, and also is home to the Xavier Zubiri Review, an annual electronic/print journal dedicated to Zubiri.

Site Includes:

bulletXavier Zubiri's life and memorabilia
bulletIntroduction to Zubiri's philosophy
bulletZubiri's writings and bibliography
bulletInformation and resources for the study of Zubiri
bulletAbout the Xavier Zubiri Foundation
bulletFoundation News and Happenings
bulletQuestions? Comments? Communicate with the Foundation

Xavier Zubiri Foundation of North America
1571 44th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20007 USA
Phone 202-298-0495, Fax 202-338-9084
President: Thomas B. Fowler


Página sobre XAVIER ZUBIRI

El objetivo de esta página es dar a conocer materiales sobre el pensamiento del filósofo en lengua castellana Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983). Para ello comienzo poniendo en ella aquellos de los que yo dispongo en soporte electrónico. Si a alguien que pretenda estudiar o investigar la filosofía zubiriana le sirven de algo me doy por satisfecho. 


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