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Philosophy of History

bulletOnline Resources
bulletTexts:  Philosophy of History
bulletUsed Books:  Philosophy of History 
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Against Interpretation : And Other Essays
coverWhy History Matters : Life and Thought by Gerda Lerner.

For historian Gerda Lerner, the personal and the professional are inextricably linked. Recently retired from her position as a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin, Lerner has crafted a profound and powerful meditation on what history means to her, and why it should matter to us. The essays in Why History Matters strongly connect Lerner's Judaism and her dual roles as feminist and historian: "To be a Jew means to live history," she writes, while Judaism's divisions between the sexes--particularly its denial of full participation in synagogue to women--eventually led to her embrace of feminism and her pioneering work in the field of women's history.

The position of women and other oppressed groups is of paramount interest to Lerner, and the longest essay in this collection deals with her theories of patriarchy as the father of all discriminatory systems. Class and race are other issues that concern Lerner, and they crop up again here in her discussion of the differences between black and white women's views of feminism. Sex, class, and race--all the hot-flash points at work in today's society--are accounted for in Why History Matters. There are connections, Lerner argues, between the violence, poverty, racism, and sexism we see all around us and the attitudes and events of the past. She has spent her life tracing these causes and effects, encouraged by her belief that understanding the past ensures a better future. And that, Gerda Lerner insists, is why history matters.

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The Historian Underground

Site created and maintained by David Kosalka.

This site is designed to give voice to views about the object of history that challenge the normal aims of the historians craft. It is based on the presupposition that normal academic historical method has lost touch with the power of history for peoples lives. We, therefore, are attempting to gather some articles to challenge the more traditional presuppositions and stir up a bit of controversy if we can. These pages go deep into an examination of the relation of history, philosophy and even a little literature as well as evaluating education and its role. 


Proceedings of the Friesian School:  Philosophy of History

The essays at this site range from the fully annotated and technical to more informal and discursive discussions, often written for undergraduate classes. Many items therefore should be intelligible to those not familiar with all the arcana of academic philosophy. Such a range of submissions is acceptable and desired, since the trend, by which academic philosophy has obscured and esotericized itself, and mostly dropped out of popular and literate culture, should be resisted.

Site Includes:


bulletConservatism, History, and Progress [26.7K]
bulletViolence, Non-Violence, and Progress in History [40.2K] 
bulletThe Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States, and Comments on American History [61.8K]
bulletDecadence, Rome and Romania, and the Emperors Who Weren't [38.9K]
bulletThe Vlach Connection, and Further Reflections on Roman History [37.9]
bulletThe Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian [28.7K]
bulletEgyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom [49.5K]
bulletBritish Coins before the Florin, Compared to French Coins of the Ancien Régime [26.9K]
bulletSix Kinds of United States Paper Currency [42.0K]
bulletThe Battleship Kongô [29.5K]
bulletAdvanced Japanese Destroyers of World War II [17.7K]
bulletA Guadalcanal Chronology, 7 August 1942 - 6 March 1943 [12.8K]
bulletThe Spread of Indo-European and Turkish Peoples off the Steppe [36.1K]
bulletJulian Day Numbers for dates on the Gregorian and Julian Calendars [14.8K]
bulletIslâmic Dates with Julian Day Numbers

Book Reviews

bulletAmerican Sphinx, The Character of Thomas Jefferson, Joseph J. Ellis, Alfred A. Knopf, 1997 [18.8K]
bulletEmancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men, A History of the American Civil War, Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, Open Court, 1996 [27.2K]

Site also Includes:

Reference Resources

bulletGuide and Index to Lists of Rulers [27.4K]
bulletNote on Ethiopia
bulletChronology and Julian Day Numbers for the Egyptian XII Dynasty [11.9K]
bulletChronology of the Egyptian New Kingdom [9.9K]
bulletEmperors of the Sangoku, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan [70.8K]
bulletEmperors of China
bulletEmperors, Shoguns, & Regents of Japan
bulletEmperors of India
bulletThe Mongol Khâns [24.3K]
bulletThe Conquests of Chingiz Khân, 1227
bulletThe Great Khâns and the Yüan Dynasty of China
bulletThe Grandsons of Chingiz Khân, 1280
bulletThe Chaghatayid Khâns
bulletThe Il Khâns
bulletThe Khâns of the Golden Horde
bulletThe Khâns of the White Horde
bulletThe Khâns of Kazan
bulletThe Khâns of Astrakhan
bulletThe Khâns of the Crimea
bulletThe Timurids
bulletHistorical Background to Greek Philosophy, Middle Eastern Political Events During the Course of Greek Philosophy
bulletHistorical Background to Hellenistic Philosophy, Hellenistic & Early Roman Monarchs
bulletRome and Romania, 27 BC-1453 AD, Maps and List of Emperors [35.4K]
bulletFirst Empire, "Rome," 27 BC-284
bulletA. "Principate," 27 BC-235, 261 years
bulletCrisis of the Third Century Chart [27.0K]
bulletB. Crisis of the Third Century, 235-284, 49 Years
bulletSecond Empire, Early "Romania," 284-610
bulletChart of the Tetrarchy [11.9K]
bulletLate Roman Capitals [10.9]
bulletA. "Dominate," 284-379, 95 years
bulletB. Crisis of the Fifth Century, 379-476, 97 Years
bulletC. The East Alone, 476-518, 42 Years
bulletD. Returning to the West, 518-610, 92 years
bulletThird Empire, Middle "Romania," Early "Byzantium," 610-1059
bulletA. The Advent of Islam, 610-802, 192 years
bulletB. Revival and Ascendency, 802-1059, 257 years
bulletFourth Empire, Late "Romania/Byzantium," 1059-1453
bulletA. The Advent of the Turks, 1059-1185, 126 years
bulletB. The Latin Empire, 1185-1261, 76 years
bulletC. The Last Days, 1261-1453, 192 years
bulletThe Bishops of Rome, the Popes, 42 AD-present [24.8K]
bulletSuccessors of Rome: The Ottoman Sultâns, 1290-1924 AD, Maps and List of Emperors [44.8K]
bulletRivals to Rome:
bulletThe Parthian Arsacids, 248 BC-227 AD
bulletThe Sassanid Shâhs (Great Kings), 224-651 AD
bulletIslâm, 622-1258 AD
bulletThe Prophet, 622-632 AD
bulletThe Rightly Guided Caliphs, 632-661 AD
bulletThe Omayyad Caliphs, 661-750 AD
bulletThe Abbasid Caliphs, 750-1258 AD
bulletThe Aghlabids, 800-909 AD
bulletThe T.âhirids, 821-873 AD
bulletThe T.ûlûnids, 868-905 AD
bulletThe Ikhshîdids, 935-969 AD
bulletThe H.amdânids of Aleppo, 944-1004
bulletThe Buwayhids, 945-1055 AD
bulletThe Shi'ite Fatimid Caliphs, 909-1171 AD
bulletIslâmic Rulers of Spain, 756-1492 AD
bulletThe Omayyad Amirs, 756-912
bulletThe Omayyad Caliphs, 912-1031
bulletThe Murabit (Almoravid) Sult.âns, 1067-1147 AD
bulletThe Muwahid (Almohad) Caliphs, 1147-1238
bulletThe Kings of Granada, 1238-1492 AD
bulletThe Seljuk Great Sult.âns, 1037-1157 AD
bulletThe Ayyubid Sult.âns, 1169-1252 AD
bulletThe Mamlûk Sult.âns of Egypt, 1252-1517 AD
bulletThe Abbasid Puppet Caliphs of Egypt, 1261-1517 AD
bulletThe Shâhs of Iran, 1501-1979 AD
bulletThe Safavids, 1501-1736
bulletThe Afsharids, 1736-1750
bulletThe Zands, 1750-1794
bulletThe Qajars, 1794-1924
bulletThe Pahlavis, 1924-1979
bulletSuccessors of Rome: Germania, Francia, & Russia, 395 AD-1945 AD, Maps and List of Kings & Emperors [40.6K]
bulletIndex & Introduction
bulletGermania, 395-774
bulletFrancia, 447-1945
bulletthe Merovingian Franks
bulletthe Carolingian Franks
bulletFrancia after the Carolingians
bulletMargraves & Counts of Flanders [32.1K]
bulletDukes of Normandy
bulletCapetian Kings
bulletDukes of Burgundy
bulletValois Kings
bulletBourbon Kings
bulletBonaparte Emperors
bulletFranconian King
bulletSaxon Kings & Emperors
bulletFraconian Emperors
bulletDukes of Lorraine
bulletHohenstaufen Emperors
bulletnon-dynastic Emperors
bulletHapsburg Emperors
bulletHohenzollern Margraves of Brandenburg & Kings of Prussia
bulletHohenzollern Emperors of German "Second Reich"
bulletno Emperors of German "Third Reich"
bulletRussia, 862-1917
bulletGrand Dukes of Kiev
bulletGrand Dukes of Vladimir
bulletGrand Dukes of Moscow and Emperors of Russia
bulletRomanov Emperors
bulletSuccessors of Rome: The Periphery of Francia, 829 AD-Present [55.1K]
bulletIndex & Introduction
bulletThe Kings of Spain and Portugal
bulletThe Kings of England and Scotland
bulletThe Sun Never Set on the British Empire [5.2K; contains a 226.1K animated GIF file]
bulletThe Kings of Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland
bulletNorman & Anjevian Counts, Dukes, and Kings of Naples and Sicily
bulletThe Kings of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
bulletOutremer, 1099-1489
bulletKings of Jerusalem and Cyprus
bulletNorman Princes of Antioch
bulletLatin Emperors of Constantinople
bulletDownload a 48.9K Word Perfect 6.0 for DOS file, or a 31.2K Note Bene 4.5 file, that contains a Genealogical Tree of the Kings of France, starting with the Carolingians, including all the Counts of Flanders, the Dukes of Burgundy, the Kings of Burgundy, all the Dukes of Lorraine after René the Good, the Angevian Kings of Naples and Hungary, the Bourbon Kings of Spain and Naples, and various other related figures (Kings of England, Dukes of Normandy, etc.). A Nota Bene file is a ASCII file with XYWrite formatting, which may be easily loaded into other word processors and reformatted, as long as the box drawing characters are not read as confusing gibberish.
bulletBrian Tompsett's Royal and Noble genealogy.


Odin's Castle of Dreams & Legends

Paul Gwynn

An archive of History and Historical Resources.  From the Dawn of Mankind to the Space Age and everything in between.  Ancient, medieval, renaissance, European, American, and World History are here.  Also includes folklore, legends, mythology, religion, maritime, aviation, King Arthur, Robin Hood, and just for fun stuff.


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