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Postmodernism for Beginners

A Contrarian's Dictionary: 2000 Damnable Definitions For The Year 2000 A Contrarian's Dictionary: 2000 Damnable Definitions For The Year 2000 by Murray L. Bob and Wilhelm Busch

A 200 page dictionary containing 2,000 definitions for contrarians, sceptics and realists. The viewpoint is iconoclastic and the style is satiric. The goal is to "define" terms, names, and euphemisms in an amusing, pithy way. Many of the entries are topical and quotable. All (with the exception, perhaps, of half-a-dozen) are original.

Most of the entries are one-, two-, and three-liners, although a few are longer. Inspired by Ambrose Bierce's classic, "Devil's Dictionary," this is a book that will make the reader think - and smile. Topics covered include: politics, economics, religion, psychology, film, the theater, literature, philosophy, New Age, management, media, personalities, and entertainment.

Many of the definitions are accompanied by marvelous illustrations by the greatest cartoonist- caricaturist who ever lived, Wilhelm Busch.

A bible for sceptics, cynics, sinners, and radicals of all stripes. True believers read at their own risk!

From the Author
In order of importance, my intention is, first, to make you smile inwardly if not outwardly and then to make you think. Not every definition will do both (some may not do either), but I'd like to believe that most readers will do at least one or the other, most times.

If you laugh out loud, it will be a bonus. If your life is changed, it will be a miracle - and I don't believe in miracles. But, if some of the definitions cause you to say, "Aha" or to view a thing from a fresh perspective, they will have done their job - which is to tickle or provoke. Some definitions are pure wordplay - nonsense, kidding around. So what? Shakespeare was the Pontiff of Pun. If he could do it, surely we pygmies can.

Since the greatest joy contrarians can have is to communicate with others of their ilk, please let me know how you feel about this book, after you have read it.

About the Author
A librarian-administrator, consultant, writer, and teacher for 44 years, Murray L. Bob is a committed contrarian - or a contrarian who ought to be committed - depending on your point of view. Father of three, grandfather of two, he, his wife and their dog live (or some facsimile thereof) in a relatively remote region of Western New York. Like Stendhal, Bob expects his writing will be appreciated 100 years after his death - which is why he will have his brain cryogenically preserved in single-malt scotch.

Hi!Click here to read more about this book 
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The Website:  This site is intended as a resource for those interested in naturalism and its personal and social implications.   It seeks to encourage the non-dogmatic, non-confrontational dissemination of naturalistic philosophy as an alternative to theism, spiritualism, and other varieties of dualism. Here you will find articles on naturalism and its applications, brief descriptions of some of its main aspects, and links to journals, magazines, newspapers, organizations, and personal web sites which relate either directly or indirectly to naturalism.  Naturalism.Org encourages your feedback and suggestions for additional links and resources. 

Site Includes:

bulletApplied Naturalism


The goal of the Objectivism WWW Service is to make Objectivism-related information available to WWW users. There are two components to this goal: first, to provide locally-sponsored content such as essays and bibliographies. Second, to provide pointers to other resources---both on and off the net---that may be of interest to people interested in Objectivism. 

Site Includes:

bulletConcepts in a Hat
bulletAbout Objectivism
bulletObjectivism in brief
bulletBibliographies of Ann Rand and related works
bulletOnline discussion forums
bulletBook services
bulletArts and entertainment

See also the Ayn Rand page on this website.


Website by Bernt Rostrom.


From the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind: The monistic view that all empirical statements (such as the laws of physics) can be placed in a one to one correspondence with statements about only the phenomenal (i.e. mental appearances). See idealism, neutral monism, monism, phenomenological critique of representationalism.

Excerpt from a short essay by Chris Eliasmith:

A view held by A.J. Ayer which was shown by Roderick Chisholm to be untenable. Chisholm showed that would not be possible to translate physical statements into phenomenal statements because phenomenal statements are dependent on physical descriptions of the observation conditions and conditions of the perciever...


From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


"Pluralism" denotes any metaphysical theory which claims that reality consists of a multiplicity of distinct, fundamental entities. The term was first used by Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and later popularized by William James in The Will to Believe. Pluralism is distinguished from both monism, the view that one kind of thing exists, and dualism, the view that two kinds of things exist. There are weak and strong forms of pluralism theories. The weak form holds that there are many distinct individual things, whereas the strong form holds that there are many distinct kind of things. Theories dealing with the number of entities are referred to as substantival, and theories dealing with the type of entities are referred to as attributive.



From the Philosophy Research Base. 

Site Includes:

bulletDeleuze and Guattari

Continental Rationalism

From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  The term "Continental Rationalism" traditionally refers to a 17th century philosophical movement begun by Descartes. After Descartes, several dozen scientists and philosophers continued his t eachings throughout continental Europe and, accordingly were titled "Cartesians." Some Cartesians strayed little from Descartes' scientific and metaphysical theories. Others incorporated his theories into Calvinistic theology. But a handful of philosopher s influenced by Descartes were more original in developing their own views and these people are included under the more general title "rationalists." the principle rationalists include Benedict Spinoza , Nicholas Malebranche, Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz, and Christian Wolff.

Scientific Rationalism

The Scientific Rationalism Website:  the permanent renaissance. 

You'll never be free unless you can work this out: If you always believe what you're told, what happens when you're told a lie? If you never believe what you're told, how can you know what's happening outside your door? 

Site Includes:

bulletScientific Rationalism page
bulletA history of rational thinking
bulletWhat is a Renaissance?
bulletUFOs and space aliens
bulletQuacks and Conmen
bulletSexuality and good sense

bulletModern Rationalism
bullet20th Century Rationalism
bulletBrand Blanshard
bulletAyn Rand 



From the Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind: Briefly, a realist about x holds that x enjoys mind-independent existence, that is, x exists regardless of whether anyone thinks, hopes or fears that x exists.

It may sound odd to demand of minds and other things mental that they have mind independent existence, but the claim, for instance, that my mind is mind independent just means that I have a mind regardless of whether anyone thinks, hopes, or fears that I do.

As well, a realist insists on there being explanations of the empirical world (including minds) in terms of the real world. Thus, a complete theory of the mind should explain the existence and functioning of minds in terms of the reality lying behind their empirically testable properties. This expectation strongly contrasts with the strictly empiricist position of phenomenalists.

By Pete Mandik & Chris Eliasmith


Romanticism On the Net is a Peer-reviewed, Electronic Journal devoted to Romantic studies.

Site Includes:

bulletTable of Contents
bulletRomantic Related Sites
bulletCall for Articles

Also see:  Les Miserables:  Romanticism Project

Site Includes:

bulletArt of the Romantic Period: 1790-1850
bulletPoems (emphasizing Romanticism)
bulletFavorite Romanticism Links
bulletWebMuseum: Romanticism
bulletRomanticism [C] at the Seattle Web Gallery
bulletRomanticism and the Arts
bulletRomanticism On the Net
bulletRoN Romantic-Related Sites page
bulletA Tale of Two Revolutions
bulletEighteenth-Century Studies
bulletThe French Revolution
bulletThe French Revolution
bulletFrench Revolution - Robespierre, and the Legacy of the Reign of Terror
bulletThe French Revolution
bulletThe French Revolution II


The Secular Web from Internet Infidels, Inc:  Have you ever felt that there would be fewer religious believers if only more information from our side were available? The Internet is the only medium where both believers and nonbelievers are on a level playing field. Internet Infidels, Inc. is the world's only organization which exclusively uses THE INTERNET to promote agnosticism, atheism, freethought, and secular humanism. Our web site, the award-winning Secular Web, receives more visitors than any other web site of its kind.

Site Includes:

bulletChurch & State
bulletFaith & Reason
bulletLife After Death
bulletHistorical Library



...the sensualist will discover that what had previously passed for passionate sex had been merely an agreeable piece of foreplay. Erotic pleasure of an intoxicating intensity that mortal flesh has never known will be enjoyable with a whole gamut of friends and lovers. This will be possible because jealousy - already transiently eliminable today under the influence of serotonergic drugs - is not the sort of gene-inspired perversion of consciousness likely to be judged worthy of conservation in the Post-Darwinian era. Better still, designer love-philtres and smarter sex-drugs can transform our conception of intimacy. Today's ill-educated fumblings will seem inept by comparison. Tomorrow's sensualists may opt for whole-body orgasms of a frequency, duration and variety that transcends the limp foreplay of their natural ancestors. Whether the sexual adventures of our descendants will be mainly auto-erotic, interpersonal, or take guises we can't currently imagine is a topic for another night. Profound love of many forms - both of oneself and all others - is at least as feasible as the impersonal emotional wasteland occupied by Huxley's utopians....


Welcome to, the official website of the Skeptics Society. Our award-winning site is your pathway to critical thinking, where everything must pass under the magnifying glass of scrutiny.


bulletThe Skeptics Society and Skeptic: Vol 4 No 2 Shermer: Secular Ethics
bulletCSICOP and Skeptical Inquierer. Dodes: The Mysterious Placebo
bulletThe Left Hemisphere. A resource site for Skeptics ...
bulletPhilosophy, Science and Skepticism by Mark Vuletic "Methodological Naturalism and the Supernatural"
bulletThe Skeptic's Dictionary & Guide for the New Millennium by Robert T. Carroll, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy, Sacramento City College
bulletthe PhACT home page
bulletTo Eric Krieg's Home Page
bulletVetenskap och Folkbildning Swedish sister org to CSICOP

Scientific Supernaturalism

Review by William B. Provine of The Origin of Species Revisited: The Theories of Evolution and of Abrupt Appearance (2 vols) By W. R. Bird



The Tao Te Ching was written in China about 2,500 years ago. Its 81 chapters have been translated into English more times than any other Chinese document.

The text-only version of this page has more translations, a total of 27 in all (out of the over one hundred that have been published). If you go to that page with the Netscape browser then you can, by opening New Windows and using the Go menu, place several of the translations side by side at the same time to compare subtle differences. This can be accomplished in more compact form in the frames version.
bulletTaoism on the PRB


Essays Arguing for or promoting Theism: 


William P. Alston

bulletThe Experiential Basis of Theism

John A. Bloom

bulletWhy Isn't the Evidence Clearer

Walter Bradley

bulletScientific Evidence for the Existence of God

William Lane Craig

bulletThe Resurrection of Theism
bulletProf. Gruenbaum on Creation
bulletThe Caused Beginning of the Universe
bulletGod and the Initial Cosmological Singularity
bulletThe Teleological Argument and the Anthropic Principle

John Gay

bulletA Possible Perfect World: Examining the Problem of Evil

Norman Geisler

bulletMiracles and Modern Scientific Thought

Owen Gingerich

bulletIs There a Role for Natural Theology Today?

Ralph McInerny

bulletWhy the Burden of Proof is on the Atheist

Hugo Meynell

bulletHume, Kant, and Rational Theism

Alvin Plantinga

bulletTheism, Atheism, and Rationality
bulletIntellectual Sophistication and Basic Belief in God
bulletAdvice to Christian Philosophers

Rick Rood

bulletThe Problem of Evil: How Can a Good God Allow Evil?

Allan Sandage

bulletA Scientist Reflects on Religious Belief

James Stump

bulletScience, Metaphysics, and Worldviews

Richard G. Swinburne

bulletThe Justification of Theism

Paul C. Vitz

bulletThe Psychology of Atheism

Peter S. Williams

bulletThe Right to Believe


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