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Logic / Critical Thinking
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Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking

The Brain and the Universe : A Scientific Inquiry The Brain and the Universe : A Scientific Inquiry
by Orlando N. Acosta, Joaquin Navarro (Illustrator)

Discusses the creation and evolution of the universe, the structure of matter, and the forces acting on it. Derives the restrictions inherent in human logic. Discusses human's religious beliefs. Predicts that by the year 3000 we'll create an improved version of the human species. The goals of this planned human evolution are to improve the chances for survival of the new species in an earth depleted resources, and to make the new species capable of carrying out a program of deep space exploration.

About the Author
Orlando N. Acosta holds a B.S.E.E. degree from the University of Havana, and a M.S.E.E. degree from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. For many years, he worked at the Marsha Space Flight Center, NASA, and the Naval Sea Systems Command of the U.S. Navy. He is the author of many award winning IEEE Transaction Papers. After Retirement he moved to Daytona Beach, Florida.

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Newsletter and WWW-site on language and speech technology and logic. Sponsored by European Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) and Dutch Research School in Logic (OzsL).

Site includes:

bulletLatest Issue
bulletConference Calendar
bulletBack Issues
bulletJob Postings
bulletHelp file
bulletGeneral info
bulletSubmission format
bulletList of editors


Conceptanalysis, Language and Logic

Site Created and Maintained by Juhani Kerkkonen

Three creators of the modern conceptanalysis (G.E. Moore, B. Russell and L. Wittgenstein) and their successor G.H. von Wright. Scheme of language, logic and the world of reality.



Thomas Adajian

Resources for students and teachers of informal logic:  animations, exercises.

ETC is part of an ongoing interest in developing creative and rigorous ways to teach reasoning skills.  We welcome feedback -- comments, suggestions, criticisms -- on the technical, philosophical, logical, pedagogical features of the site.   Musicians, artists, fiction-writers, math and science, sociologists, psychologists, programmers, animators, choreographers, philosophers, and venture capitalists interested in working with us are urged to contact us.


Hegel by HyperText:
Readings of Hegel's Logic

This site, maintained by Andy Blunden,  is devoted to Hegel's Logic, and includes an onsite search engine. 

Site Includes:  

1. Introduction
2. Foreword by J N Findlay
3. Outline of The Logic
4. Contents of The Shorter Logic

Engels on Hegel
5. Socialism. Utopian & Scientific
6. Ludwig Feuerbach 

Hegel's Shorter Logic
7. Introduction
8. Preliminary Chapters
9. The Logic further Defined and Divided

I: Being
10. Being

II: Essence
11. A: Existence
12. B: Appearance
13. C: Actuality

III: The Notion
14. A: The Subjective Notion
15. B: The Object
16. C: The Idea

Hegel's Science of Logic
17. Contents of Science of Logic
18. Book I. Being
19. Book II. Essence
20. Book III, The Notion in General
21. Book III, The Idea
22. Book III, The Idea of the Good
23. Book III, The Absolute Idea

Other Works by Hegel
24. Hegel's Philosophy of Right  
25. Contents of The Encyclopaedia
26. Outline of the Phenomenology

Comments and Explanations
27. Glossary of philosophical terms.
28. Hints by Andy
29. The Meaning of Hegel's Logic, by Andy Blunden
30. Biographical Notes on philosophers
31. Sampler - references for various themes
32. Alphabetical Index
33. About . . . - sources etc.
34. Hegel for Beginners
35. Biography of Hegel
36. Hegelianism in the 20th Century, Mario Rossi
37. What is Alive & Dead in Hegel Today, Howard Kainz
38. Time Line for Hegel's Legacy

The genesis of Hegel's influence
40. ‘1841
41. Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, Ludwig Feuerbach

Karl Marx
44. Critique of Hegel's Dialectic and General Philosophy, Marx
45. Private Property and Communism, Marx
46. Theses on Feuerbach, Marx
47. The German Ideology, Marx
48. Method of Political Economy, from Grundrisse, Marx
49. Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Marx
50. Method of Investigation and Method of Presentation, Marx

51. Anti-Dühring, Engels
52. The Dialectic, Kautsky
53. For the 60th Anniversary of Hegel's Death, Plekhanov
54. Annotations on Hegel's Logic, Lenin
55. Hegel & Mathematics, Ernst Kol'man & Sonia Yanovskaya
57. The ABC of Materialist Dialectics, Trotsky
58. On Contradiction, Mao Tse Tung
59. Philosophy & Revolution, Raya Dunayevskaya
60. Notes on Dialectics, C L R James
61. The Dialectic of the Real and the Phenomenological Method in Hegel, Alexandre Kojčve
62. The Organisation of the Logic, Jean Hyppolite
64. An Introduction to The Philosophical Notebooks of Lenin, Cliff Slaughter
65. The Logic of Marxism, George Novack
66. Logic of Marx's Capital, reply to Hegelian criticisms, Tony Smith
68. Logical Development and Concrete Historicism, E V Ilyenkov
69. Unity of the Abstract & the Concrete, E V Ilyenkov
70. The Concepts of Capital, Geoff Pilling
71. Marx's Grundrisse and Hegel's Logic, Hiroshi Uchida
72. Hegel, Economics, and Marx's Capital, Cyril Smith

Other Resources
74. HyperText Representation of Structure of Logic in Triads
75. Works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Trotsky
76. My Home Page
77. Stalinism: Its Origin and Future - 350 page book
78. Articles on Knowledge & Value
79. Program & papers from Hegel Seminars in Melbourne
80. Hegel's Theory of the Modern State, Shlomo Avineri
81. Hegel & Political Economy - a discussion
82. Archive of 1997-98 Discussion List
83. Archive of Visitors' Letters & Comments


Identifying the Argument of an Essay

Created and maintained by Frank Edler, Ph.D. Philosophy Metropolitan Community College (Omaha, NE).  This is an excellent interactive Critical Thinking Tutorial.

Excerpt from the Introduction:

In many of your classes, especially English Composition, Philosophy, and Humanities, you will have to write a paper on an  number of issues such as racism, sexism, or capital punishment. Whatever your topic, you will probably have to read a variety of source materials before you can begin to write your own paper. 

Reading through these materials is not an easy task. Skimming through introductory and concluding sections of books and essays helps you get a rough idea of where an author stands on an issue. Sooner or later, though, you will have to do the "donkey work" of carefully reading the materials you've selected for your issue.

Before you can evaluate an issue, you have to be able to identify the range of positions one can take on that issue and to summarize fairly what those positions are.

Here's where critical reasoning and critical reading can help you!

Modal Operator Theory:  A Program in Philosophy 

Vincent F. Hendricks

Meant to entice students and fellow researchers, this well organized and aesthetically austere website is an introduction to modal operator theory.  Based upon the work of Vincent Hendricks and Stig Andur Pedersen, this site introduces the applications of modal logic and formal learning theory to epistemology, methodology and philosophy of science.

Books by Hendricks and Pedersen:

Proof Theory : History and Philosophical Significance (Synthese Library, V. 292) by Vincent F. Hendricks (Editor), Stig Andur Pedersen (Editor), kla Jrgensen

Coming Soon from Vincent F. Hendricks:

The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge - A View from the Limit, (Trends in Logic, Studia Logica Library), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001

Operators in Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh Press


Oxford Virtual Technology: Philosophy

Philosophy and Information Technology.  Dedicated to the impact of analytical (and other) philosophy on information technology, and vice versa. 

Information technology is the apotheosis of the analytical tradition in philosophy.   Information technology is the analytical tradition in philosophy implemented in source code and silicon.  Computation will be to philosophy in the twenty-first century what logic has been to philosophy in the twentieth... 


Philosophical Toys

ne plus ultra Award RecipientCreated and Maintained by Peter Gibbins.

Computing will be to philosophy in the twenty-first century what logic has been to philosophy in the twentieth-century. The site demonstrates philosophical applets written in Java.

Site Includes:

bulletTomassi's Classical Logic
bulletLemmon-style Classical and Quantum Logic
bulletThe Game of Life
bulletThe Game of Fuzzy Life
bulletThe Spatialized Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
bulletThe Fuzzy Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma
bulletA Generic Algorithm


SRI International Computer Science Laboratory: Linear Logic

Linear logic was developed by J.Y.Girard as part of his investigation into the semantics of Intuitionistic Logic. Linear Logic has now matured into a rich area of active research: a workshop devoted to linear logic was held at Cornell in 1993, and another workshop was held at Keio University in Tokyo in 1996. Many papers have been published regarding linear logic semantics, proof theory, complexity, and expressiveness, and there is an electronic mailing list devoted to linear logic (to join send email to Frank Pfenning has developed a graduate course on linear logic: course material

Site Includes:

bulletWhat is Linear Logic?
bulletPapers Related to Linear Logic
bulletCourse Material
bulletLinear Mailing List Archive


Varol Akman's Home Page

This web page includes various online papers on artificial intelligence, logic, philosophy, and language. There are also a fair number of key philosophy links.


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